Banner: Porcelain Grace, Meryl Ruth, Fine Art

 

GLOSSARY  FOR FIBER ART TERMS

 

A   B .C  D  E .F  G  H  I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P  Q. R  S. T. U. V. W  X. Y. Z.


 

A

 

 

Acrylic paint

An emulsion of pigment to form a fast-drying paint that is water-soluble but permanent after it dries; useful primarily for finishing embellishments.

 

 

Air-brushing

Technique for applying a thin liquid fabric paint in nebulized form to the surface of a fiber art work by means of an air-spray device.
See Air-compressor

 

 

Air-compressor

Device for providing high-pressure air-spray through a jet nozzle for the purpose of applying nebulized liquid fabric paint to the surface of a fiber art work.
See
Air-brushing

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B

 

 

 

Balanced and Unbalanced Twills 

In these types of twills, the warp and weft floats may be equal or unequal. In other words, the twills may be of the reversible or irreversible types, known respectively as balanced and unbalanced twills. 
See Twill, Warp and Weft.

 

 

Buckram replacement

Felt and felt-like textiles are used in fiber art work when rigidity is needed. Synthetic felt-like fabric (commercially available as Fosshape) is particularly valuable because, in contradistinction to felt, it can be stiffened without water or toxic additives, by applying heat in the form of a hot air gun, fabric steamer or steam iron. Furthermore, this material can be cut with scissors and sewn together. It is mildew resistant and capable of being dyed and painted with fabric paints. I experimented with it in my search for a method to enhance its structural integrity and hardness. I ultimately found a simple novel method for achieving my artistic goal by using a conventional oven for baking preformed three-dimensional designs of felt panels sewn together. An optimal combination of temperature and duration, specifically 230℉. for 30 minutes, proved ideal for my purposes. Prudence dictates constant vigilance to ensure against burning the artwork during the baking process.

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C

 

 

Cut Stencil Silk-Screening

A silk-screening technique that uses a green film, called S3S Stay-Sharp Lacquer Film. A design is cut into the film. This is a laborious method that precedes application of the film to a silk-screen frame, allowing it to be used in a method similar to photo silk-screening. Ink is applied to the film surface and spread by means of a squeegee across the frame. The design on the film is transferred to fiber material placed under the frame.
See Air-brushing, Image transfer, Photo silk-screening, Silk-screening

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D

 

 

E

 

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F

 

 

 

Felt

Felt is a sturdy textile used in fiber art work for both structure and design. It is produced by matting, condensing and pressing natural wool or synthetic fibers.
See Buckram replacement.  

 

 

Fosshape

A synthetic felt made commercially. It is a more durable and workable product than fiber felt. Moreover, it can be hardened for three-dimensional fiber art works by means of hot air gun, steam iron and, especially, by baking in a regular oven.
See Buckram replacement.

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G

 

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H

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I

 

 

Image transfer

The process by which images are applied to fiber art. The image can be in any form, including drawing, photograph, painting, print, stencil, photocopy, among others. The image is transferred onto the surface of the fiber material by any number of techniques, such as silk-screen, photo silk-screen, stenciling and mono printing.
See Cut stencil silk-screen, Photo silk-screen, Silk-screen

 

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J

 

 

 

K

 

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L

 

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M

 

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N

 

 

O

 

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P

 

 

 

Photo silk-screening      

Adaptation of silk-screen printing technique in which a photographic image is used to create the stencil. The image is first transferred to clear acetate, which is laid over a screen (mesh) that has been treated with a light-sensitive material. Exposing the screen to strong uniform light reproduces the photographic image on the mesh. The mesh is then used as the stencil in the silk-screen process.
See Cut stencil silk-screening, Silk-screening

 

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Q

 

 

R

 

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S

 

 

Silk-screening

A printing technique in which a finely-woven fabric, called mesh (originally of silk, but currently of nylon or polyester), is stretched across a frame and used to support an ink-blocking impermeable stencil. The stencil is a negative of the image that is to be printed with open spaces where ink or fabric paint will appear. The open areas in the stencil allow transfer of ink or fabric paint onto a fiber material. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil forcing ink or paint past the mesh threads onto the printing surface, thereby printing the desired image. Also called serigraphy or screen-printing.
See Cut stencil silk-screening, Photo silk-screening

 

 

Stencil silk screening

See Cut stencil silk-screening

 

T

 

 

Trompe l'oeil

A style of highly realistic, detailed painting in which the senses are tricked into perceiving the flat two-dimensional image as a three-dimensional illusion. From the French for “deceives the eye.”  Although the technique was revived in Baroque times and more recently popularized (by a wide range of artists from Tiepolo and Peale to Dali, Harnett and Magritte, and latterly to Latzke and Orosz, among many others), it actually originated in ancient Greek and Roman painting and mosaic works. Synonymous with photorealism.

 

Twill

Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. It can be identified by looking for the presence of pronounced diagonal lines that run along the width of the fabric. In contrast to plain weaving, twill produces its diagonal pattern by floating (that is, skipping) warp threads or strips over two or more weft threads or strips before being woven into the fabric. Alternatively, weft can be floated over warp.
See: Balanced and Unbalanced Twills, Warp and Weft.

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U

 

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V

 

 

W

 

 

Warp and Weft

Warp refers to the horizontal threads (or, as in my work, strips) on a loom over and under which vertical threads (or strips), the weft, are passed. In contrast to plain weaving, twill produces its diagonal pattern by floating (that is, skipping) warp threads (or strips) over two or more weft threads (or strips) before being woven into the fabric. Alternatively, weft can be floated over warp.
See: Balanced and Unbalanced Twill, Twill.

X

 

 

Y

 

 

Z